The Role of Reading Mind from Eyes, Mental Culture and Emotional Intelligence in Social Decision-Making

Manya Rezaeian, Mohammadhosein Abdollahi, Mohammadhosein Abdollahi, Mahnaz Shahgholian, Mahnaz Shahgholian

Abstract


Abstract

Introduction: The present study aimed to evaluate the role of reading mind from eyes, mental culture and emotional intelligence on decision-making in social situations. To this aim, altruism and attitudes toward gender roles were considered as the indicators of mental culture.

Methods: The study included 30 male and female students (n = 15 per group) in Kharazmi University, who were selected based on simple random sampling. In order to collect data,  Baron and Cohen's test of reading the mind in the eyes, ultimatum tasks, the test of social value orientation , Siberia-Shearing emotional intelligence questionnaire and semi-structured interviews were used to examine people's attitudes toward gender roles. Correlation analysis and simple regression were used for data analysis.

Results: Results indicated that a positive correlation was observed between reading the mind in the eyes and making decision in social situations. However, no significant correlation was reported between emotional intelligence and mental culture with making decisions in social situations. Simple regression data could predict the role of emotional intelligence and reading the mind in the eyes in social decision-making. In addition, the results of qualitative observations indicated that people's attitudes toward gender roles can be related to significant predictors of making decisions in social positions.

Conclusion: Based on the results, reading the mind from eyes can play a significant role on social decision making. Therefore, it is necessary to teach important concepts such as social recognition in order to empower the individuals to improve cognitive skills.


Keywords


Keywords: Social Decision Making, Mental Culture, Emotional Intelligence, Reading Mind from Eyes

Full Text:

PDF

References


Ardila A, Surloff C. Dysexcutive syndromes. San Diego: Med link: Neurology; 2007.

Rilling JK, King-Casas B, Sanfey AG. The neurobiology of social decision-making. Journal of Current Opinion in Neurobiology. 2008; 18:159-165. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18639633

Victoria K. Lee, Lesana T. Harris. How Social cognition can inform Social decision making. Journal of Frontiers in Neuroscience. 2013; 259:1-1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3872305/

Nejati V, Zabihzadeh A, Nikfarjam MR, Naderi Z, Pournaghsali A. Correlation between Mindfulness and Mind Reading through Eye Image. Zahedan journal of research in medical sciences. 1390; 14(1):37-42. http://en.journals.sid.ir/ViewPaper.aspx?ID=261328

Wang YG, Wang YQ, Chen SL, et al. Theory of mind disability in major depression with or without psychotic symptoms: A componential view. Psychiatry Res. 2008; 161(2): 153-161. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18926572

Van den Bos W, van Dijk E, Westerberg M, Rombouts S, Crone EA .What motivates repayment? Neural correlates of reciprocity in the Trust Game. Social Cognition Affect Neurosci. 2009; 4: 294 – 304. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2728629/

Van Overwalle F. Social cognition and the brain: a meta-analysis. Hum Brain Map. 2009; 30:829 – 858.

Chiao JY, Harada T, Komeda H, Li Z, Mano Y, Saito DN, Parrish TB, Sadato N, Iidaka T. Neural basis of individualistic and collectivistic views of self. Hum Brain Map. 2009; 30(9):2813–2820. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19107754

Kitayama S, Cohen D. Handbook of cultural psychology. Guilford, New York. 2007.

Bechara A. The role of emotion in decision-making: Evidence from neurological patients with orbitofrontal damage. Journal of Brain Cognition. 2004; 55:30-40. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/labs/articles/15134841/

Mayer JD, Salovey P. What is emotional intelligence? In P Salovey & DJ Sluyter (Eds.), Emotional development and emotional intelligence: Educational implications (pp. 3–31). New York: Basic Books.1997.

Reis DL, Brackett MA, Shamosh NA, Kiehl KA, Salovey P,Gray JR. Emotional intelligence predicts individual differences in social exchange reasoning. NeuroImage. 2007; 35: 1385–1391. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17331743

Gutiérrez-Cobo MJ, Cabello R, Fernández-Berrocal P. The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Cool and Hot Cognitive Processes: A Systematic Review. Front Behave Neurosci. 2016; 10: 101. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27303277

Alan G. Sanfey, James K. Rilling1, Jessica A. Aronson, Leigh E. Nystrom, Jonathan D. Cohen. The neural basis of economic decision-making in the Ultimatum Game. Science. 2003; 300: 1755 – 1758. http://science.sciencemag.org/content/300/5626/1755

Rilling JK, Goldsmith D, Glenn A, Jairam M, Elfenbein H, Dagenais J, Murdock C, Pagnoni G. The neural correlates of the affective response to unreciprocated cooperation. Neuropsychologia. 2008; 46:1256 – 1266. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18206189

Delgado MR, Frank RH, Phelps EA. Perceptions of moral character modulate the neural systems of reward during the trust game. Nat Neurosci. 2005; 8: 1611 – 1618. http://www.nature.com/neuro/journal/v8/n11/abs/nn1575.html

Alan G. Sanfey. Social decision-making: insights from game theory and neuroscience. Science. 2007; 318:598 – 602. http://science.sciencemag.org/content/318/5850/598

Baron-Cohen S, Wheelwright S, Hill J, Raste Y, Plumb I. The “Reading the Mind in the Eyes” test revised version: A study with normal adults and adults with Asperger Syndrome or high-functioning autism, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 2001; 42: 241–251. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11280420

Dulewicz V, Higgs M. Measuring emotional intelligence: content, construct and criteration related validity. Journal of Management Psychology.2003; 18:5(405). http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/abs/10.1108/02683940310484017

Van Lange, Paul A. M. The pursuit of joint outcomes and equality in outcomes: An integrative model of social value orientation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1999; 77:337-349. http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/1999-03699-007

Nejati V. Risky decision making in social situations: Risky decision making in social situations: Design implicit test and introduction psychometric properties of it. Journal of Applied Psychology. 1392; 1(25); 101-114. www.sid.ir/fa/VEWSSID/J_pdf/30313922507.pdf

Vali N. Relation between emotional intelligence and decision-making styles among managers at sports organizations in Fars province. Indian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Life Sciences. 2015; 5:1302-1310. www.jdem.ir/pdf_149_3e70627454830ffebcabd4a9cfacfc1c.html

Chris DF, Tania S. The role of social cognition in decision making, a journal of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. 2008; 1511: 3875–3886. http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/363/1511/3875


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.