Cell Wall Extract from Piriformospora indica Enhances Valerenic Acid Content in Valerian Roots via Modulating Sesquiterepene Synthase Genes
Background: Valerenic acid (VA) as a sesquiterpene constituent responsible for medicinal properties is derived from valeriana (Valeriana officinalis). It is well documented that the mutualistic basidiomycete Piriformospora indica substantially promotes secondary metabolites production. Nevertheless, our knowledge about molecular mechanism involved is rudimentary.
Objective: In this study, we aimed to find the effect of P. indica cell wall extract (CWE) in modulation of transcriptional rate of sesquiterpene synthese (Sesqui-TPS). genes involved in VA biosynthesis in the host plant, V. officinalis.
Material and Methods: Relative expression of putative terpene syntheses (VoTPS1, VoTPS3 and VoTPS7) genes was quantified by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) in the roots of valerian plants inoculated by two concentrations of the extract (2 and 4 % v/v) prepared from the cell wall of P. indica for various time intervals. As well as, VA content of roots of V. officinalis was measured.
Results: The 4% fungal CWE application produced more VA than 2% CWE treated plants at the exposure time of 72 h. Such enhancement was correlated with increased transcript expression of two sesquiterpene synthases (sesqui-TPSs) including VoTPS1 and VoTPS7 which provided intermediates probably serving in the VA-biosynthetic pathway, while different expression pattern of VoTPS3 showed that it probably has no influence on the biosyntheesis of VA.
Conclusion:Since the accumulation of VA is a dose (and time)-dependent response at roots of V. officinalis, the present study suggests that the mechanism(s) responsible for the enhancement of VA could be related to the fungus-plant association.
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