Evaluation of Positive and Negative Symptoms and Perception of Time in Patients with Chronic Schizophrenia

Esmaeil Sadri Damirchi, Lale Zeynalzade Fard, Azar Balakhani Tole Gilani, Jabrail Valizade

Abstract


   The purpose of this study was to evaluate the positive and negative symptoms and the perception of time in patients with chronic schizophrenia in Isar psychiatric hospital and rehabilitation centers of Ardabil in 2014. The research design was descriptive and correlational. Therefore, 100 patients were selected through convenience sampling method. Positive and Negative Symptom Scale and Time Perception Scale have been applied for data collection. Data analysis was achieved through Pearson correlation coefficient and multiple regression analysis and results showed that there was no significant correlation between positive symptoms and agitation whit perception of time in patients with schizophrenia (p>0.05). In other words, positive symptoms and agitation do not affect the perception of time in these patients. But, there was a significant correlation between negative symptoms and disorganization with perception of time (p>0.05). Thus, with increasing of severity of negative symptoms and disorganization, the perception of time was reduced. Also, there was no negative significant correlation between anxiety and depression with visual stimuli, but there was no significant relationship between these components and auditory stimuli (p>0.05). In the other words, with increasing levels of anxiety and depression the perception of time was reduced (estimated time to visual stimuli). But increased rates of anxiety and depression have no effect on the perception of time (estimated auditory stimuli). The positive and negative symptoms have the ability to predict visual stimuli and auditory stimuli in 25% and 16%, respectively. As a result, in patients with schizophrenia according to the positive and negative symptoms the response time  to the audio and visual stimulus is different.


Full Text:

PDF

References


Anne Giersch, Laurence Lalanne, Mitsouko van Assche and Mark A. Elliott.(2013). On disturbed time continuity in schizophrenia: an elementary impairment in visual perception?. REVIEW ARTICLE, 28 May 2013 doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00281.

Ekhtiyari, Hamed, Jannati, Ali. Parhizgari, Seyed Ehsan, Behzadi, Arian & Mokri, Azarakhsh (2003), “Time perception and evaluation methods: a pilot study to test the Persian language subject”, New Cognitive Sciences Journal, 5 (4), pp. 36 -49

Jutta Peterburs ., Alexander M. Nitsch., Wolfgang H. R. Miltner , Thomas Straube.(2013). Impaired Representation of Time in Schizophrenia Is Linked to Positive Symptoms and Cognitive Demand. PLOS ONE, June 8 ( 6 ) e67615.

Gibbon, J. Church, R. M. & Meck, W. H. (1984). Scalar timing in memory. In J. Gibbon & L. Allan (Eds.), Timing and time perception (pp. 52-77). New York: New York Academy of Sciences.

Goldner, EM. Hsu, L. Waraich, P. & Somers, M. (2002). Prevalence and incidence studies of schizophrenic disorders: a systematic review of the literature. Can J Psychiatry, 47(9): 833-843.

Qamari Givi, Hossein, Molavi, Parviz & Heshmati, Rasol (2010), “Examine the factor structure of the scale of positive and negative symptoms in schizophrenic disorders”, Journal of Clinical Psychology, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 1 -10

Kay, SR. & Sevy, S. (1990). Pyramidal model of schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull, (16): 537-545.

Kay, SR. Opler, LA. & Lindenmayer, JP. (1989). The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS): rationale and standardization. Br J Psychiatry Suppl, (7), 59-67

Lee, J. (2008). A new look at working memory deficits in schizophrenia. [PhD Thesis]. Nashville, Tennessee: Vanderbilt University; 2008.

Navid, S. Abolghasemi, A. & Narimani, M. (2009). The relationship of emotional responses and positive and negative symptoms with quality of life in schizophrenic patients. Journal Of Guilan University Of Medical Sciences, 18(71), 64-71.

Nikpoor, Ghulam Ali & Homayoni., AliReza (2009). “Reaction time in Schizophrenic patients and normal individuals”, Behavioral Journal, 2 (4), pp. 345- 348

Noulhiane, M. Mella, N. Samson, S. Ragot, R. & Pouthas, V. (2007). How emotional auditory stimuli modulate time perception. Emotion, 7, 697-704.

Olivier Bonnot a, Marie de Montalembert b, Solenn Kermarrec c, Michel Botbol d, Michel Walter e, Nathalie Coulon(2011). Are impairments of time perception in schizophrenia a neglected phenomenon?. Journal of Physiology - Paris 105 (2011) 164–169.

Pinkham, AE. & Penn, DL. (2006). Neurocognitive and social cognitive predictors of interpersonal skill in schizophrenia. Psychiatry Res, 143:167-78.

Pinkham, AE. Penn, DL. Perkins, DO. & Lieberman, J. (2003). Implications for the neural basis of social cognition for the study of schizophrenia. Am J Psychiat, 160:815-24.

Popal, A. (1986), “Frontiers of knowledge: formation of time and reality function in brain”, translated by: Khashabi, (2010), Tehran: Arjmand Pub

Rosenhan, L, Seligman R. Seyed Mohamadi Y. (2007). Abnormal Psycho pathology. Tehran: Savalan, Arasbaran.

Sadock, VA. & Sodack, BJ. (2010). Hallucinations. Synopsis of Psychiatry. 10th ed. Williams and Wilkins Baltimore.

Sim, K. Chua, TH. Chan, YH. Mahendran, R. & Chong, SA. (2006). Psychiatric comorbidity in first episode schizophrenia: a 2 year, longitudinal outcome study. J Psychiatr Res, 40(7): 656-663.

Thomas, E. A. C. & Weaver, W. B. (1975). Cognitive processing and time perception. Attention, Perception and Psychophysics, 17, 363-367.

Treisman, M. (1963). Temporal discrimination and the indifference interval: Implications for a model of the internal clock. Psychological Monographs, 77, 1-31.

Wittmann, M. & van Wassenhove, V. (2009). The experience of time: Neural mechanisms and the interplay of emotion, cognition, and embodiment. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, 364, 1809-1813.

Wolwer, W. Frommann, N. Halfmann, S. Piaszek, A. Streit, M. & Gaebel, W. (2005). Remediation of impairments in facial affect recognition in schizophrenia: Efficacy and specificity of a new training program. Schizophr Res, 80:295-303


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.